Effects of Counters on Concept Formation on Addition on Primary One Pupils with Arithmetic Difficulties in Otana Integrated School Jos, Nigeria

Margaret Paul Damang & Veronica K. Gumut


The research aimed at finding out the effects of counters on concept formation on addition on primary one pupils with arithmetic difficulties in Otana Integrated School, Jos. The work focused on the early primary educational experiences of pupils. The study used the true experimental research design, with a sample of ten (10) pupils randomly shared into experimental and control groups. This means five (5) sample each for the experimental and control groups. The experimental group was taught using counters, while the control group was taught without using counters. The instrument used was teacher-made test for both the pre-test and post-test. The generated data was analyzed using t-test for related sample, mean, percentages and standard deviation. The results indicated that the experimental group performed better than the control group. Provision of counters is recommended for pupils with arithmetic difficulties since it enabled them to recall basic arithmetic procedures.

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